cited authors

  • Rahman, Syed O; Khan, Tahira; Iqubal, Ashif; Agarwal, Shivani; Akhtar, Mohd; Parvez, Suhel; Shah, Z A; Najmi, Abul K


  • Insulin, a well-known hormone, has been implicated as a regulator of blood glucose levels for almost a century now. Over the past few decades, the non-glycemic actions of insulin i.e. neuronal growth and proliferation have been extensively studied. In 2005, Dr. Suzanne de La Monte and her team reported that insulin might be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and thus coined a term "Type-3 diabetes" This hypothesis was supported by several subsequent studies. The nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 (Nrf2) triggers a cascade of events under the regulation of distinct mechanisms including protein stability, phosphorylation and nuclear cytoplasmic shuttling, finally leading to the protection against oxidative damage. The Nrf2 pathway has been investigated extensively in relevance to neurodegenerative disorders, particularly AD. Many studies have indicated a strong correlation between insulin and Nrf2 signalling pathways both in the periphery and the brainbut merely few of them have focused on elucidating their inter-connective role in AD. The present review emphasizes key molecular pathways that correlate the role of insulin with Nrf2 during AD. The review has also identified key unexplored areas that could be investigated in future to further establish the insulin and Nrf2 influence in AD.

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