Neuroprotection of Sex Bias: A Protective Response to Traumatic Brain Injury in the Females Article (Faculty180)

cited authors

  • Yatoo, Mohammad I; Bahader, Gh A; Beigh, Sh A; Khan, Adil M; James, Antonisamy W; Asmi, Maleha R; Shah, Z A


  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major healthcare problem and a common cause of mortality and morbidity. Clinical and preclinical research suggests sex-related differences in short- and long-term outcomes following TBI; however, males have been the main focus of TBI research. Females show a protective response against TBI. Female animals in preclinical studies and women in clinical trials have shown comparatively better outcomes against mild, moderate, or severe TBI. This reflects a favorable protective nature of the females compared to the males, primarily attributed to various protective mechanisms that provide better prognosis and recovery in the females after TBI. Understanding the sex difference in the TBI pathophysiology and the underlying mechanisms remains an elusive goal. In this review, we provide insights into various mechanisms related to the anatomical, physiological, hormonal, enzymatic, inflammatory, oxidative, genetic, or mitochondrial basis that support the protective nature of females compared to males. Furthermore, we sought to outline the evidence of multiple biomarkers that are highly potential in the investigation of TBI's prognosis, pathophysiology, and treatment and which can serve as objective measures and novel targets for individualized therapeutic interventions in TBI treatment. Implementations from this review are important for the understanding of the effect of sex on TBI outcomes and possible mechanisms behind the favorable response in females. It also emphasizes the critical need to include females as a biological variable and in sufficient numbers in future TBI studies.


publication date

  • 2023