The ER chaperone, BIP protects Microglia from ER stress-mediated Apoptosis in Hyperglycemia Article (Faculty180)

cited authors

  • James, Antonisamy W; Bahader, Gh A; Albassan, Mohammad; Shah, Z A


  • A major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, binding of Immunoglobulin heavy chain protein (BIP) facilitates the assembly of newly synthesized proteins in the ER. Microglia vigorously respond to brain injuries and eliminate the damaged neuronal and apoptotic cells through phagocytosis in the central nervous system. However, the mechanism of BIP-mediated microglial function is not clear in hyperglycemia. We explored the molecular mechanism of BIP in microglial function during hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia was induced in mice by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ 100/kg) and confirmed by measuring the blood glucose from day 2 to day 14. After 14 days of experimental hyperglycemia, mice were sacrificed and brains were collected for ER chaperone expression. In-vitro hyperglycemia was induced by exposing HMC3 cells to 25┬ámM glucose for 5 days and proteins involved in ER stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were analyzed. In hyperglycemic conditions, BIP protein expression was dramatically reduced in HMC3 cells, which led to increased apoptosis through the activation of CHOP and mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bad, and cleaved caspase-3). The flow cytometry results indicate hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, the BIP inducer X restored the apoptosis in HMC3 cells by derepressing BIP expression and inhibiting ER stress. These results suggest that the ER chaperone BIP is required for the microglial function and protects from apoptosis in hyperglycemia. A better understanding of BIP's molecular mechanism and role in microglial function may contribute to developing novel therapies for microglia dysfunction-associated neurodegenerative diseases.


publication date

  • 2023

published in

start page

  • 105573


  • 169