Exposure to ethanol commonly manifests neuroinflammation. Beta (β)-lactam antibiotics attenuate ethanol drinking through upregulation of astroglial glutamate transporters, especially glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), in the mesocorticolimbic brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (Acb). However, the effect of β-lactam antibiotics on neuroinflammation in animals chronically exposed to ethanol has not been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ampicillin/sulbactam (AMP/SUL, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) on ethanol consumption in high alcohol drinking (HAD1) rats. Additionally, we investigated the effects of AMP/SUL on GLT-1 and -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes (NR2A and NR2B) in the Acb core (AcbCo) and Acb shell (AcbSh). We found that AMP/SUL at both doses attenuated ethanol consumption and restored ethanol-decreased GLT-1 and NR2B expression in the AcbSh and AcbCo, respectively. Moreover, AMP/SUL (200 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced ethanol-increased high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expression in the AcbSh. Moreover, both doses of AMP/SUL attenuated ethanol-elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the AcbSh. Our results suggest that AMP/SUL attenuates ethanol drinking and modulates NMDA receptor NR2B subunits and HMGB1-associated pathways.