- Hammad, Alaa M; Meknas, Sara J; Hall, F S; Hikmat, Suhair; Sari, Youssef; Al-Qirim, T M; Alfaraj, Malek; Amawi, Haneen
- Chronic tobacco exposure can alter the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, consequently leading to an anxiety state. In this study, we investigated the effects of waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) on cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CBR1 and CBR2) gene and protein expression in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. Using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests, the effects of WTS exposure on withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior were examined. The effect of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), on anxiety and the expression of cannabinoid receptors was also determined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) the Control group was exposed only to standard room air; 2) the WTS group was exposed to tobacco smoke and treated with saline vehicle; 3) the WTS-CEF group was exposed to WTS and treated with ceftriaxone; and 4) the CEF group was exposed only to standard room air and treated with ceftriaxone. Rats were exposed to WTS (or room air) for two hours per day, five days per week for a period of four weeks. Behavioral tests (EPM and OF) were conducted weekly during acute withdrawal, 24 h following WTS exposure. Rats were given either saline or ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg i.p.) for five days during Week 4, 30 min prior to WTS exposure. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was induced by WTS exposure but was reduced by ceftriaxone treatment. WTS exposure decreased CBR1 mRNA and protein expression in the NAc and VTA, but not PFC, and ceftriaxone treatment attenuated these effects. WTS exposure did not change CBR2 mRNA expression in the NAc, VTA, or PFC. These findings demonstrate that WTS exposure dysregulated the endocannabinoid system and increased anxiety-like behavior, and these effects were reversed by ceftriaxone treatment, which suggest the involvement of glutamate transporter 1 in these effects.
- Brain research bulletin Journal
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