Hammad, Alaa M; Alhusban, Ala A A; Alzaghari, Lujain F; Alasmari, Fawaz; Sari, Youssef
Cigarette smoke withdrawal can cause anxiety-like behavior and modulate neurotransmitter-related proteins in the brain. We examined the effects of cigarette smoke with and without aspirin treatment on the concentrations of neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, and GABA in the amygdala and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four different groups: (1) control group exposed only to standard room air, (2) cigarette smoke exposed group treated with saline vehicle, (3) cigarette smoke exposed group treated with aspirin (30 mg/kg), and (4) control group treated only with aspirin (30 mg/kg). Cigarette smoke exposure was performed for 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 31 days. Behavioral testing was carried out weekly, 24 h after cigarette smoke exposure, during acute withdrawal. At the end of week 4, rats were given either distilled water (1 mL) or aspirin 45 min before cigarette exposure for 11 days. Dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, and GABA were extracted from both the amygdala and hippocampus and were separated and quantified using a developed and validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Cigarette smoke withdrawal induced anxiety behaviors, and aspirin treatment reduced this effect. Cigarette smoke exposure increased tissue content of dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, and GABA, and aspirin treatment reversed this effect. Cigarette smoke caused an increase in tissue content of several neurotransmitters as well as anxiety-like behavior, and these effects were normalized by aspirin treatment.