Cofilin signaling in hemin-induced microglial activation and inflammation Article (Faculty180)

cited authors

  • Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin; Alhadidi, Qasim; Shah, Z A


  • Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe form of stroke and is further exacerbated by the secondary injury involving inflammatory response due to the activation of microglia. This secondary injury is partly due to the toxic effects of hemin, an endogenous breakdown product of hemoglobin. Cofilin, an actin depolymerizing factor, controls actin dynamics and has been previously shown to be involved in mediating neuronal cell death in ischemic conditions and during bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced microglial activation. There are limited studies regarding the deleterious effects of extremely high concentrations of hemin released during ICH and its effects on microglia and subsequent cofilin response. Therefore, investigations were conducted to study the effects of hemin on microglial activation induced inflammation and the critical role of cofilin in mediating the response. We observed that hemin treated microglia had a concentration dependent increase in cofilin expression and NO production. There were increased levels of iNOS, TNF-α, HO1, Nrf2, Wfs-1, XBP-1 and spliced XBP-1 observed in response to hemin treatment and the signaling was found to be partly mediated by cofilin. Acute hemin treatment did not evoke Ca signaling and long-term treatment of hemin also resulted in the failure of microglial response to acetylcholine-evoked Ca signaling. Knockdown of cofilin by siRNA also reduced acetylcholine-evoked Ca signaling. These studies demonstrate that cofilin signaling is important in hemin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, ER stress, microglial migration, and the ability to evoke Ca signaling. Therefore, cofilin inhibition could be a potential therapy in brain injuries triggered by hemin toxicity in conditions like ICH.


publication date

  • 2017

published in

start page

  • 46

end page

  • 55


  • 313