Development and evaluation of a calcium alginate based oral ceftriaxone sodium formulation Article (Faculty180)

cited authors

  • Patel, Nachiket; Lalwani, Darshan; Gollmer, Steven; Injeti, Elisha; Sari, Youssef; Nesamony, Jerry


  • The purpose of this work was to develop a multiparticulate system exploiting the pH-sensitive property and biodegradability of calcium alginate beads for intestinal delivery of ceftriaxone sodium (CS). CS was entrapped in beads made of sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), acacia, HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M as drug release modifiers. Beads were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linking agent, followed by enteric coating with cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP). The beads were then evaluated for entrapment efficiency using HPLC, in vitro drug release examined in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8), swellability, particle size and surface characterization using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was utilized to check the polymer matrix strength and thermal stability. The drug entrapment efficiency of the optimized formulation was determined to be 75 ± 5 %. Swelling properties of drug-loaded beads were found to be in a range of 0.9-3.4. Alginate beads coated with CAP and containing CMC as a second polymer exhibited sustained release. The drug release followed first-order kinetics via non-Fickian diffusion and erosion mechanism. The particle size of the beads was between 1.04 ± 0.20 and 2.15 ± 0.36 mm. TGA, AFM, and SEM data showed composition and polymer-dependent variations in cross-linking, thermal stability, surface structure, morphology, and roughness. The physico-chemical properties of the developed formulation indicate suitability of the formulation to deliver CS orally.


publication date

  • 2016

published in

start page

  • 117

end page

  • 133


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