Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system correlated to their symptoms. Among these neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neurodegeneration is mostly restricted to specific neuronal populations: cholinergic neurons in AD and motoneurons in ALS. The demonstration that the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases in models of transgenic mice, in particular, is delayed or improved by the application of neurotrophic factors and derived peptides from neurotrophic factors has emphasized their importance in neurorestoration. A range of neurotrophic factors and growth peptide factors derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor/activity-dependent neuroprotective protein has been suggested to restore neuronal function, improve behavioral deficits and prolong the survival in animal models. In this review article, we focus on the role of trophic peptides in the improvement of AD and ALS. An understanding of the molecular pathways involved with trophic peptides in these neurodegenerative diseases may shed light on potential therapies.