- Alshehri, Fahad S; Althobaiti, Yu S; Sari, Youssef
- Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) or methamphetamine (MA) can lead to increase in extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Although studies from ours showed the effects of EtOH exposure on key glial glutamate transporters, little is known about the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA or MA alone on certain glial glutamate transporters. In this study, we investigated the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA on the expression of the major glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in striatum and hippocampus. We also tested the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), known to upregulate GLT-1, in animals administered EtOH and MA. Wistar rats were orally gavaged with EtOH (6 g/kg) or water for 7 days. On the following day (day 8), the rats received four intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MA (10 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle) occurring every 2 h. The rats were then treated with CEF (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or saline on days 8, 9, and 10. EtOH or MA exposure caused a significant downregulation of GLT-1 expression as compared to control groups in striatum and hippocampus. Furthermore, sequential exposure of EtOH and MA caused a significant downregulation of GLT-1 expression as compared to either drug administered alone in both brain regions. Importantly, GLT-1 expression was restored following CEF treatment. There were no significant differences on xCT and GLAST expression in striatum and hippocampus between all groups. These findings demonstrated that sequential exposure to EtOH and MA has additive effect in downregulation of GLT-1 and this effect can be attenuated by CEF treatment.
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