Omran, Alzahra J Al; Saternos, Hannah C; Althobaiti, Yu S; Wisner, Alexander; Sari, Youssef; Nauli, Surya M; AbouAlaiwi, Wiss A
Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies show for the first time that oral gavage of ethanol decreased the beating frequency of all three types of ependymal cilia in both the third and the lateral rat brain ventricles in vivo. Furthermore, we show for the first time that hydin, a hydrocephalus-inducing gene product whose mutation impairs ciliary motility, and polycystin-2, whose ablation is associated with hydrocephalus are colocalized to the ependymal cilia. Thus, our studies reinforce the presence of three types of ependymal cilia in the brain ventricles and demonstrate the involvement of ethanol as a risk factor for the impairment of ependymal cilia motility in the brain.