A minimum amount of energy is required for basic physiological processes, such as protein biosynthesis, thermoregulation, locomotion, cardiovascular function, and digestion. However, for reproductive function and survival of the species, extra energy stores are necessary. Production of sex hormones and gametes, pubertal development, pregnancy, lactation, and parental care all require energy reserves. Thus the physiological systems that control energy homeostasis and reproductive function coevolved in mammals to support both individual health and species subsistence. In this review, we aim to gather scientific knowledge produced by laboratories around the world on the role of the brain in integrating metabolism and reproduction. We describe essential neuronal networks, highlighting key nodes and potential downstream targets. Novel animal models and genetic tools have produced substantial advances, but critical gaps remain. In times of soaring worldwide obesity and metabolic dysfunction, understanding the mechanisms by which metabolic stress alters reproductive physiology has become crucial for human health.