Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with Herpes simplex encephalitis: A case report and literature review Article (Faculty180)

cited authors

  • Gharaibeh, Khaled; Hegde, Prajwal; Malaiyandi, Deepa


  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a stress-induced cardiomyopathy characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. It can be triggered by various central nervous system pathologies including status epilepticus (SE) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis. Herpex simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening, sporadic, encephalitis associated with focal or global cerebral dysfunction caused by herpes simplex viruses type 1(HSV-1), or less commonly, type 2(HSV-2). While approximately 20% of patients with HSE develop NMDAr antibodies, not all manifest with encephalitis clinically. We present here a 77-year-old woman admitted with HSV-1 encephalitis who presented with acute encephalopathy and seizure-like activity. Continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) showed periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) involving the left parietotemporal region but no evidence of electrographic seizures. Her early hospital course was complicated by TCM which subsequently resolved on repeat TTE. She demonstrated initial neurological improvement. However, five weeks later her mental status declined. Again, no seizures were appreciated on cEEG. Unfortunately, repeat studies including lumbar puncture and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were consistent with NMDAr encephalitis. She was treated with immunosuppression and immunomodulation therapies. To our knowledge we report the first case of TCM secondary to HSE without comorbid status epilepticus. However, further studies are needed to better understand the correlation between, and underlying pathophysiology of HSE and TCM, as well as any potential association with this presentation and subsequent development of NMDAr encephalitis.

publication date

  • 2023

published in

start page

  • 578138


  • 381