Craig, Daniel J; Nanavaty, Ni S; Devanaboyina, Monika; Stanbery, Laura; Hamouda, Danae; Edelman, Gerald; Dworkin, Lance; Nemunaitis, John J J
Radiation therapy (RT) in some cases results in a systemic anticancer response known as the abscopal effect. Multiple hypotheses support the role of immune activation initiated by RT-induced DNA damage. Optimal radiation dose is necessary to promote the cGAS-STING pathway in response to radiation and initiate an IFN-1 signaling cascade that promotes the maturation and migration of dendritic cells to facilitate antigen presentation and stimulation of cytotoxic T cells. T cells then exert a targeted response throughout the body at areas not subjected to RT. These effects are further augmented through the use of immunotherapeutic drugs resulting in increased T-cell activity. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte presence and TREX1, KPNA2 and p53 signal expression are being explored as prognostic biomarkers.