Leggat, David J; Iyer, Anita S; Ohtola, Jennifer A; Kommoori, Sneha; Duggan, Joan M; Georgescu, Cl A; Khuder, S A; Khaskhely, Noor M; Westerink, Ma J
Newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals are 35 to 100-fold more susceptible to infection compared to non-infected individuals. Therefore, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has previously been recommended, though efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination remains controversial. Early severe B cell dysfunction is a central feature of HIV infection. The specific nature of the immune cells involved in the production of protective antigen-specific antibodies in HIV-positive individuals remains to be elucidated.