Martin, Ryan A; Buckley, K H; Mankowski, D C; Riley, B M; Sidwell, A N; Douglas, S L; Worth, Randall G; Pizza, Francis X
We investigated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a membrane protein that mediates cell-to-cell adhesion and communication, as a mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates muscle regeneration after injury. Toxin-induced muscle injury to tibialis anterior muscles of wild-type mice caused ICAM-1 to be expressed by a population of satellite cells/myoblasts and myofibers. Myogenic cell expression of ICAM-1 contributed to the restoration of muscle structure after injury, as regenerating myofibers were more abundant and myofiber size was larger for wild-type compared with Icam1-/- mice during 28 days of recovery. Contrastingly, restoration of muscle function after injury was similar between the genotypes. ICAM-1 facilitated the restoration of muscle structure after injury through mechanisms involving the regulation of myofiber branching, protein synthesis, and the organization of nuclei within myofibers after myogenic cell fusion. Our findings provide support for a paradigm in which ICAM-1 expressed by myogenic cells after muscle injury augments their adhesive and fusogenic properties, which, in turn, facilitates regenerative and hypertrophic processes that restore structure to injured muscle.