- Khalaf, Fatimah K; Dube, Prabhatchandra; Kleinhenz, Andrew L; Malhotra, Deepak; Gohara, Amira; Drummond, Christopher A; Tian, Jiang; Haller, S T; Xie, Zijian; Kennedy, David J
- Cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) are NKA α-1 (Na/K-ATPase α-1) ligands that are increased in volume expanded states and associated with cardiac and renal diseases. Although initiation and resolution of inflammation is an important component of cellular injury and repair in renal disease, it is unknown whether CTS activation of NKA α-1 signaling in this setting regulates this inflammatory response. On this background, we hypothesized that CTS signaling through the NKA α-1-Src kinase complex promotes a proinflammatory response in renal epithelial and immune cells. First, we observed that the CTS telocinobufagin activated multiple proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in renal epithelial cells, and these effects were attenuated after either NKA α-1 knockdown or with a specific inhibitor of the NKA α-1-Src kinase complex (pNaKtide). Similar findings were observed in immune cells, where we demonstrated that while telocinobufagin induced both oxidative burst and enhanced Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activation in macrophages ( P<0.05), the effects were abolished in NKA α-1 macrophages or by pretreatment with pNaKtide or the Src inhibitor PP2 ( P<0.01). In a series of in vivo studies, we found that 5/6th partial nephrectomy induced significantly less oxidative stress in the remnant kidney of NKA α-1 versus wild-type mice. Similarly, 5/6th partial nephrectomy yielded decreased levels of the urinary oxidative stress marker 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in NKA α-1 versus wild-type mice. Finally, we found that in vivo inhibition of the NKA α-1-Src kinase complex with pNaKtide significantly inhibited renal proinflammatory gene expression after 5/6th partial nephrectomy. These findings suggest that the NKA α-1-Src kinase complex plays a central role in regulating the renal inflammatory response induced by elevated CTS both in vitro and in vivo.
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