DeAngelis, Cara M; Saul-McBeth, Jessica; Matson, Jyl S
A critical factor for bacterial survival in any environment is the ability to sense and respond appropriately to any stresses encountered. This is especially important for bacteria that inhabit environments that are constantly changing, or for those that inhabit more than one biological niche. Vibrio species are unique in that they are aquatic organisms, and must adapt to ever-changing temperatures, salinity levels and nutrient concentrations. In addition, many species of Vibrio colonize other organisms, and must also deal with components of the host immune response. Vibrio infections of humans and other organisms have become more common in recent years, due to increasing water temperatures in many parts of the world. Therefore, understanding how these ubiquitous marine bacteria adapt to their changing environments is of importance. In this review, we discuss some of the ways that Vibrios sense and respond to the variety of stresses that negatively affect the bacterial cell envelope. Specifically, we will focus on what is currently known about the σ response, the Cpx response and the contributions of OmpU to extracytoplasmic stress relief.