leads a dual life cycle, as it can exist in the aquatic environment and colonize the human small intestine. In both life cycles,
encounters a variety of stressful conditions, including fluctuating pH and temperature and exposure to other agents that may negatively affect cell envelope homeostasis. The phage shock protein (Psp) response is required to sense and respond to such insults in other bacteria but has remained unstudied in
. Interestingly, the Psp system has protein homologs, principally, PspA, in a number of bacterial clades as well as in archaea and plants. Therefore, our findings not only fill a gap in knowledge about an unstudied extracytoplasmic stress response in
, but also may have far-reaching implications.