Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were uninephrectomized (UNX) at 6 wk of age and given either standard chow (CON), low-sodium chow (LSC), or standard chow and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) added to the drinking water. Severe hypertension developed in all three groups. Forty-two weeks after UNX, proteinuria and glomerular sclerosis were significantly lower in LSC than in CON or HCTZ. The protective effect of salt restriction did not depend upon alterations in plasma renin concentration or glomerular hemodynamics. Micropuncture revealed that glomerular pressure was high in all three groups. Renal hypertrophy assessed by kidney weight, kidney-to-body weight ratio, glomerular volume, and glomerular capillary radius were reduced by salt restriction. These findings suggest that, in the setting of glomerular hypertension, hypertrophy promotes sclerosis. Salt restriction inhibits compensatory kidney growth and protects the kidney.