Many states that are involved in science and technology planning are selecting particular focus areas for state investment. In states with strong science and technology capacity, focus areas can relate to existing strengths. In predominantly rural states, there may not be a strong science and technology foundation, so new areas that do not reflect existing strengths may be selected. This article describes West Virginia’s first effort in statewide science and technology planning. The article shows that the existing research and development capability is dominated by the chemicals industry but that the recently formed Science and Technology Advisory Council looked to new areas (information technologies and identification technologies) for investment and development. The rationale for the selection of these areas is explained.