Transmission of Moloney murine leukemia virus (ts-1) by breast milk Article (Web of Science)


  • A murine model has been developed to study maternal transmission of the temperature-sensitive Moloney murine leukemia virus (ts-1). The goal of this study was to confirm early and late mother-to-offspring transmission of the virus and demonstrate transmission via breast milk. A series of six experiments was performed using six groups of BALB/c mice. Group 1 consisted of pups born to ts-1-infected mothers removed at birth to suckle from surrogate uninfected mothers. Groups 2 and 5 consisted of pups born to ts-1-infected mothers that suckled from ts-1-infected mothers (surrogate and biological). Group 3 consisted of non-infected pups removed at birth to suckle from ts-1-infected mothers. Groups 4 and 6 consisted of non-infected pups suckled from non-infected mothers. The combined in utero, intrapartum and breast-milk infection rate was 100 % to the offspring (groups 2 and 5). The in utero to early post-partum group (group 1) had an infection rate of 78 %. Breast milk alone (group 3) resulted in a 97 % infection rate. Control groups (groups 4 and 6) had a 0 % infection rate. The relative frequency of maternal CD4+ cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was consistently lower in infected mothers, whilst offspring did not show a significant decrease in CD4+ frequency. Pups infected via breast milk had a lower CD4+ frequency (group 3) than those infected by the uterine and/or intrapartum route (group 1). Breast milk from ts-1-infected mothers appears to be highly infectious for neonatal BALB/c mice.


publication date

  • 2006

published in

number of pages

  • 5

start page

  • 2679

end page

  • 2684


  • 87


  • 9