We determined the effect of muscle contractions resulting from high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES) on inflammatory cells in rat tibialis anterior (TA), plantaris (Pln), and soleus (Sol) muscles at 6, 24, and 72 h post-HFES. A minimum of four and a maximum of seven rats were analyzed at each time point. HFES, applied to the sciatic nerve, caused the Sol and Pln to contract concentrically and the TA to contract eccentrically. Neutrophils were higher ( P < 0.05) at 6 and 24 h after HFES in the Sol, Pln, and TA muscles relative to control muscles. ED1+ macrophages in the Pln were elevated at 6 and 24 h after HFES and were also elevated in the Sol and TA after HFES relative to controls. ED2+ macrophages in the Sol and TA were elevated at 24 and 72 h after HFES, respectively, and were also elevated in the Pln after HFES relative to controls. In contrast to the TA muscles, the Pln and Sol muscles showed no gross histological abnormalities. Collectively, these data indicate that both eccentric and concentric contractions can increase inflammatory cells in muscle, regardless of whether overt histological signs of injury are apparent.