Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infection in humans, affecting half of all women at least once during their lifetimes. The rise in antibiotic resistance and health care costs emphasizes the need to develop a vaccine against the most common UTI pathogen,
. Vaccinating mice intranasally with a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin and two surface-exposed receptors, Hma or IutA, significantly reduced bacterial burden in the bladder. This work highlights progress in the development of a UTI vaccine formulated with adjuvants suitable for human use and antigens that encode outer membrane iron receptors required for infection in the iron-limited urinary tract.