Otor, Hope O; Steiner, Joshua B; Garcia-Sancho, Cristina; Alba-Rubio, Ana C
One of the most significant challenges in the use of heterogeneous catalysts is the loss of activity and/or selectivity with time on stream, and researchers have explored different methods to overcome this problem. Recently, the coating of catalysts to control their deactivation has generated much research traction. This Review is aimed at studying different encapsulation techniques employed for controlling catalyst deactivation. Focus is given to the prevention of irreversible modes of deactivation, such as sintering and leaching. In this Review, we elaborate on different entrapment methods used to protect catalysts from deactivation in both liquid and gas reaction media. Relevant probe reactions are discussed with emphasis on the catalyst activity and stability. Challenges associated with those processes are also described with emphasis on the mass transfer limitations as a result of the coverage of the active sites. Finally, some future perspectives and areas for possible improvement are highlighted.